Fun With Justin Sat, 01 Oct 2022 08:47:07 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Fun With Justin 32 32 The Pacific Ocean will make way for the next global supercontinent on the planet Sat, 01 Oct 2022 07:21:53 +0000

According to a new study from Curtin University, Earth’s next supercontinent: Amasia, will form when the Pacific Ocean closes in 200 to 300 million years. Scientists used a supercomputer to simulate the formation of supercontinents.

They discovered that since the Earth has been cooling for billions of years, the plates that support the oceans are thinning and weakening over time. This makes it more difficult for the next supercontinent to form by closing “young” oceans, such as the Atlantic or Indian oceans.

The Pacific Ocean is what remains of the super Panthalassa Ocean, which began to form 700 million years ago when the ancient supercontinent began to break up. Since the time of the dinosaurs, when it was the largest, this ocean, the oldest we have on Earth, has been gradually shrinking.

It is currently shrinking by a few centimeters per year, and its current size of around 10,000 kilometers is expected to take 200 to 300 million years to close.

Lead author Dr Chuan Huang, from Curtin’s Earth Dynamics Research Group and School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, said the new discoveries were significant and provided information about what would happen to Earth over the next 200 million years.

“Over the past 2 billion years, Earth’s continents have collided to form a supercontinent every 600 million years, known as the supercontinent cycle. This means that the current continents will come together again in a few hundred million years.

The new supercontinent was previously named Amasia because some believe the Pacific Ocean will close (as opposed to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans) when America collides with Asia. Australia is also expected to play a role in this critical Earth event, first colliding with Asia and then connecting America and Asia once the Pacific Ocean closes.

“By simulating the expected evolution of the Earth’s tectonic plates using a supercomputer, we were able to show that in less than 300 million years, it is probably the Pacific Ocean that will close, allowing the formation of Amasia, debunking some previous scientific theories.

Co-author John Curtin, Professor Emeritus Zheng-Xiang Li, also of Curtin’s School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, said that having the entire world dominated by a single landmass would drastically alter Earth’s ecosystem and environment.

“Earth as we know it will look dramatically different when Amasia forms. Sea levels are expected to be lower and the vast interior of the supercontinent will be very arid with high daily temperature ranges,” Professor Li said.

“Currently, the Earth consists of seven continents with very different ecosystems and human cultures, so it would be fascinating to think about what the world might look like in 200 to 300 million years.”

Journal reference:

  1. Chuan Huang et al, Will Earth’s Next Supercontinent Assemble Through the Closing of the Pacific Ocean?, National Science Review (2022). DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwac205
NaaS Technology Inc. Announces Leadership Change Fri, 30 Sep 2022 20:40:00 +0000

BEIJING, September 30, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — NaaS Technology Inc. (NASDAQ: NAAS) (the “Company” or “NaaS”), one of the largest and fastest growing electric vehicle charging service providers in Chinatoday announced that Mr. Lei Zhao has resigned as the company’s Chief Financial Officer for personal reasons, effective immediately.

NaaS also announced the appointment of Mr. Alex Wu as interim CFO and has begun a formal search for a permanent replacement.

“I would like to thank Mr. Lei Zhao for his contribution to NaaS and wish him the best in his future endeavours,” said Ms. Yang Wang, CEO of NaaS. “I look forward to working closely with Alex and am confident that his experience in corporate finance and capital markets will be of great help to NaaS.”

Mr. Alex Wu served as Acting Chief Financial Officer of RISE Education Cayman Ltd, the company’s predecessor, from September 2021 to June 2022. Mr. Wu has extensive experience in corporate finance, technology and management and Currently serves as Executive Vice President and a member of Bain Capital Private Equity’s Asia-Pacific Portfolio Group. Prior to joining Bain Capital Private Equity in 2017, Mr. Wu worked at PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting focusing on the technology, media and telecommunications (TMT) and digital solutions sectors in cloud, e-commerce and IT. to analyse. Prior to that, Mr. Wu worked with airlines and telecommunications companies to plan and implement transformation programs. Mr. Wu holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Peking University and an MBA from the Australian Graduate School of Management at Peking University. University of New South Wales.

About NaaS Technology Inc.

NaaS Technology Inc. is one of the largest and fastest growing electric vehicle charging service providers in China. The Company is a subsidiary of Newlinks Technology Limited, one of the leading energy digitization groups in China. NaaS provides one-stop services to charging station manufacturers and operators, OEMs, companies with their own delivery fleets, and fleet operators, with online, offline, and non-electric services spanning the entire value chain of the electric vehicle sector. By 2021, NaaS had connected 290,000 chargers, with an annual charging capacity of more than 1,200 Gigawatt hours, representing approximately 18% of China public charging market and eliminating 900,000 tonnes of carbon emissions per year. On June 13, 2022shares of the Company’s US depository began trading on NASDAQ under the stock code NAAS.

Safe Harbor Statement

This press release contains forward-looking statements. These statements are made pursuant to the “safe harbor” provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You may identify these forward-looking statements by words such as “will”, “expect”, “believe”. , “anticipates”, “intends”, “estimates” and similar statements. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties and are based on current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about the Company and the industry. All information provided in this press release is as of the date hereof, and the Company undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, or changes in its expectations, unless the law requires it. Although the Company believes that the expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, it cannot guarantee that its expectations will prove to be correct, and investors are cautioned that actual results may differ materially from anticipated results.

For investor and media inquiries, please contact:

Investor Relations

NaaS Technology Inc.

E-mail: [email protected]

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SOURCENaaS Technology Inc.

Donald and Mary Kosch donate $1 million to DPTV Thu, 29 Sep 2022 16:35:00 +0000

“And we really appreciate that.”

The couple supported bringing PBS Kids learning materials, games and apps to children in Detroit neighborhoods to help them learn before the pandemic. They also supported the Michigan Learning Channel’s launch in early 2021, she said.

Operated in partnership with other public television stations in the state, the Michigan Learning Channel offers additional programming that meets Michigan Education Standards to help children learn and master the skills they need, such as knowledge of the alphabet. It’s primarily focused on K-5 learning right now, Herbert said, with limited programming for older students.

Part of the couple’s donation will also support the development of programs to support children’s mental health, teaching them how to manage their emotions and stress, Herbert said.

The new mental health programs will build on current DPTV programming like “POP checks”, which encourages children to pause for a few minutes to practice techniques that help them identify how they are feeling, center themselves and calm down and relieve stress.

“Sometimes you have to get up and shake your moves,” breathing exercises and lion roars, Herbert said.

“We are very excited about the holistic approach Detroit PBS is taking,” Mary Kosch said in a statement.

“DPTV considers the child, parent(s), caregivers, educators, and collaborates with other community partners to understand and inform what happens from zero to eight,” formative and important years for learning, she said.

Education develops skills and learning that can serve us throughout our lives, said Donald Kosch, who became president of his father’s company, Dearborn Sausage, in 1960 at the age of 23. .

“We know our donation will bring great value to the community and we are excited to establish the Educational Media Center,” he said.

How the US nuclear test moratorium started a supercomputing revolution Thu, 29 Sep 2022 12:01:40 +0000

Thirty years ago, on September 23, 1992, the United States conducted its 1,054th nuclear weapons test.

When this test, named Divider, exploded in the morning underground in the Nevada desert, no one knew it would be the last American test for at least the next three decades. But by 1992, the Soviet Union had formally dissolved and the United States government decreed what was then seen as a short-term moratorium on testing that continues today.

This moratorium came with an unexpected benefit: no longer testing nuclear weapons ushered in a revolution in high-performance computing that has far-reaching national and global security impacts that few are aware of. The need to maintain our nuclear weapons in the absence of testing has led to an unprecedented need for increased scientific computing power.

At Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, where the first atomic bomb was built, our primary mission is to maintain and verify the safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. To do this, we use non-nuclear and subcritical experiments coupled with advanced computer modeling and simulations to assess the health and extend the life of US nuclear weapons.

But as we all know, the geopolitical landscape has changed in recent years, and while nuclear threats still loom, a host of other emerging crises threaten our national security.

Pandemics, sea level rise and coastal erosion, natural disasters, cyberattacks, the spread of disinformation, energy shortages: we have seen firsthand how these events can destabilize nations, regions and the world. At Los Alamos, we use high-performance computing that has been developed over decades to simulate nuclear weapon explosions with extraordinarily high fidelity to address these threats.

When the Covid pandemic first took hold in 2020, our supercomputers were used to help predict the spread of the disease, as well as model vaccine deployment, the impact of variants and their spread, counties at high risk of vaccine hesitancy and the impacts of various vaccine distribution scenarios. They also helped model the impact of public health orders, such as face mask mandates, to stop or slow the spread.

This same computing power is used to better understand DNA and the human body at fundamental levels. Los Alamos researchers have created the largest simulation to date of an entire DNA gene, a feat that required the modeling of a billion atoms and will help researchers better understand and develop cures for diseases such as cancer.

What are Los Alamos supercomputers used for?

The Laboratory also uses the power of secure and classified supercomputers to examine the national security implications of climate change. For years, our climate models have been used to predict Earth’s responses to change with ever-increasing resolution and accuracy. But the usefulness of our climate models to the national security community has been limited. This is changing, given recent advances in modelling, increasing resolution and computing power, and combining climate models with infrastructure and impact models.

We can now use our computing power to observe climate change at extraordinarily high resolution in areas of interest. Because the work is done on secure computers, we don’t reveal to potential adversaries exactly where (and why) we are looking. Additionally, the use of these supercomputers allows us to incorporate classified data into the models which can further increase accuracy.

Los Alamos supercomputers are also used for earthquake prediction, coastal erosion impact assessment, wildfire modeling, and a host of other national security challenges. We also use supercomputers and data analytics to optimize our nonproliferation threat detection efforts.

Of course, our Laboratory is not alone in this effort. Other Department of Energy labs are using their intensive computing power to tackle similar and additional challenges. Likewise, private companies pushing the boundaries of computing are also helping to advance national security-focused computing efforts, much like the work of our nation’s top universities. As the saying goes, a rising tide lifts all boats.

And we have the moratorium on nuclear weapons testing, at least in part, to thank. We did not know 30 years ago how much we would benefit from the supercomputing revolution that followed. As a nation, itContinuing to invest in supercomputing not only ensures the safety and efficiency of our nuclear stockpile, but also advances scientific exploration and discovery that benefits everyone. Our national security depends on it.

Bob Webster is the assistant director of weapons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nancy Jo Nicholas is Associate Laboratory Director for Global Security, also at Los Alamos.

Have an opinion?

This article is an Op-Ed and the opinions expressed are those of the author. If you would like to respond or would like to submit your own editorial, please email Cary O’Reilly, C4ISRNET Senior Editor.

Sarvodaya Development Finance celebrates World Literacy Day, demonstrating its commitment to education Wed, 28 Sep 2022 23:55:43 +0000

On the heels of the interim budget speech and a staff-level agreement on an expanded financing facility with the IMF, the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce held a virtual session on September 1, 2022 to discuss “How Can Sri Lanka Compete for Investment Amid Turbulent Times: Economic Growth vs. Fiscal Consolidation”.

Natarajan Sankar, Managing Director and Partner of Boston Consulting Group (BCG), Dr Dushni Weerakoon, Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies, Ashique Ali, President of SLASSCOM, and Thulci Aluwihare, Deputy Managing Director of CHEC Port City, participated to the discussion. Dove. The session was moderated by Shiran Fernando, Chief Economist at the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce.

During the discussion, Natarajan Sankar highlighted how the development of economic clusters could be an important policy tool to activate growth in new sectors, such as Dubai, Singapore and Malaysia. The presentation demonstrated that Sri Lanka is now at an inflection point, where bold reforms need to be implemented to improve export competitiveness and attract FDI, similar to major South Asian economies after the Asian financial crisis of 1997.

Discussing these ideas in more detail in the context of Port City Colombo, where BCG has been engaged as an international strategy consultant, Sankar stressed that the structural advantages offered by Sri Lanka must be increased by strengthening the brand of the country. as an investment destination, as well as improving the ease, risk and cost of doing business. As many SEZs have failed due to poor conceptualization and implementation, he stressed the need to form a compelling value proposition through a comprehensive package of fiscal incentives, infrastructure support, a pool of talents and an enabling legal/regulatory framework.

Sankar also spoke of the vast potential that exists in the IT, digital education and professional services segments, where Sri Lanka could position itself for an India+1 strategy, thanks to lower operating costs, a good quality talent pool and robust connectivity. In the context of IT companies, he pointed out that companies consider a multitude of factors in their international location decisions, as they take a long-term view to move from outposts to satellites, and eventually to operations. of hub. Therefore, an accurate global narrative and investor pitches, tailored to sectors and sub-sectors, should be established to attract international investment, he explained.

In addition to the discussion, Dr. Dushni Weerakoon, Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies, referenced the World Bank’s Global Investment Competitiveness Report, which outlines the top 3 factors for investment decisions. investment like: a favorable political environment, macroeconomic stability and a favorable regulatory regime. Sri Lanka’s poor performance on these pillars, coupled with the current economic crisis, may cause investors to generally move away from long-term investments and consider opportunistic/portfolio investments that are relatively easier to exit.

However, to attract “efficiency-seeking FDI”, which is the vehicle for new technologies, managerial know-how and business networks, the long-term reform program plays a crucial role. In the midst of an economic crisis and an era of fiscal consolidation, tax incentives should be strategically considered to attract investment in sectors such as IT, construction and exports. It could also position Sri Lanka competitively among the 50-70% of developing countries that offer tax incentives to attract investment.

Giving an overview from an IT/BPM perspective, Ashique Ali, President of SLASSCOM, highlighted the importance of developing globally relevant skills to benefit from the vast opportunity in the IT/BPM sector, which is remained globally resilient even during the pandemic, due to the growing demand for digitization. He pointed out that Sri Lanka continues to remain attractive to global customers despite the disruptions in business activity the industry has experienced over the past two months.

Addressing the issue from the development perspective of Port City Colombo, Thulci Aluwihare, Deputy Managing Director of CHEC Port City Colombo, explained the importance of strong economic growth to achieve long-term debt sustainability, notwithstanding fiscal consolidation. While agreeing that labor efficiency, quality of infrastructure, political stability, etc. take precedence over tax incentives in the context of investment decisions, Aluwihare revealed a benchmarking analysis of regional peers, which highlights Sri Lanka’s poor ranking in these aspects. Additionally, Sri Lanka is also a relatively high tax jurisdiction, where taxes were second only to India despite lacking a large domestic market. On the other hand, even developed jurisdictions such as Singapore and Dubai in the United Arab Emirates offer targeted tax incentives for 40-50 years.

He also explained that the rates of return expected by international investors, commensurate with the country’s risks, are significantly higher than in the region, which makes large-scale development projects relatively unattractive. Aluwihare concluded by emphasizing that targeted incentives should be offered taking into account a cost-benefit analysis when the wider economic impact outweighs the cost of these incentives.

GLBT Center connects students to vital programs and resources during LGBTQ History Month | Culture Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:32:00 +0000

Celebrated from October 1 through October 31, LGBTQ History Month is a month of community, support, and togetherness for students who identify as LGBTQ through campus events and key resources.

In honor of National Coming Out Day, the second Campus Pride March on October 3 from 3-6 p.m. is the star of the show this month. Pride Walk is an opportunity for students to connect with allies and peers. The event will consist of a 1.4 mile loop around campus, with several stops and a party at Stafford Commons to close out the event.

“This is the kick off for LGBTQ History Month before handing over the programming of our History Month to our student organizations, as we know that many of our students engage better directly with other students. “said Rain Garant, deputy director of the GLBT Center.

According to Mitch Bowersox, program coordinator for the GLBT Center, the Pride Walk is much larger than last year due to earlier planning efforts and more collaborations with campus departments.

“We have more student participants, we have more volunteers,” Bowersox said. “Last year it was just kind of a walk, then we had a little table in Wolf Plaza, and now we’re having a huge lawn party at the end of our walk. And it’s just a big opportunity for students to engage in this way.

Last year, students especially appreciated the fact that the GLBT Center and NC State recognized the importance of pride for their students, faculty, staff, and members of the LGBTQ community through the GLBT Walk. pride.

“The students seem to really enjoy having this performance on campus,” Bowersox said. “As it had never been done before, it was a big deal. People were joining us as we walked, students and pedestrians were honking their horns, and I saw [people] on Hillsborough Street they were cheering us on. People came out of their buildings just to cheer us on too.

The second Our futures The event will take place on October 6 in the lounge of the GLBT Center, a monthly opportunity for students to engage with members of the LGBTQ community on a range of topics.

“This is an ongoing lecture series where we bring adults living, working and thriving in the Triangle area on campus to talk to our students about what it’s like to be a queer adult in a post world. -academic,” Garant said.

October Queer Quoruman ongoing student-led discussion group that facilitates conversation, will hold a session later this month, October 18, for students and LGBTQ allies to connect with the community.

GLBT Center director Charla Blumell said she wants people to feel celebrated and belong, and when they walk through campus, no matter where they are, they know there’s a place. and a space for them.

“I think things like Pride Walk help amplify that and help understand, at least for me, why community is so important,” Blumell said. “But I would like our students, staff and faculty to feel that they have that kind of community-building community care, wherever they are. It is my hope.

The GLBT Center is dedicated to helping make and create as much space as possible for LGBTQ students and the surrounding community, centering their well-being and providing support.

Discover the GLBT Center websiteevents calendar and newsletter follow the monthly schedule.

DOD’s largest telescope atop Haleakalā in Maui receives mirror coating, preserves space domain awareness Tue, 27 Sep 2022 14:58:00 +0000

VIDEO | 06:45 | The Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) telescope receives a new coating. (Courtesy photo/Boeing)

By Jeanne Dailey, Air Force Research Laboratory Public Affairs

The 3.6 meter, 75 ton Advanced Electro-Optical System, or AEOS. The telescope, pictured with the Mirror Cover Team, is the Department of Defense’s largest optical telescope. The mirror has received its second coat since AEOS was installed at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing site in 1997. AMOS is part of the Air Force Research Laboratory and maintaining the mirror in pristine condition is key to the space domain awareness mission of the US Space Force. . (Courtesy photo/Boeing)

The advanced electro-optical system at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing site, or AEOS, the Department of Defense’s largest telescope, measuring 3.6 meters or 11.9 feet, has had a facelift.

Located atop the 10,023-foot Haleakalā volcano, the telescope is part of a series of telescopes called the Maui Space Surveillance System, which the US Space Force uses for Space Domain Awareness, or SDA, recognizing space as a priority area for advancing national security.

The site combines a research and development mission under the Air Force Research Laboratory, a laboratory supporting two services, and an operational mission under the U.S. Space Force’s 15th Space Surveillance Squadron, a unit USSF Space Operations Command Activated May 2022.

After a year of planning and four months of execution, the site has completed the coating of the AEOS, the telescope’s main mirror. AEOS is a reflector telescope, indicating that it has a small secondary mirror placed near the focus of the primary mirror to reflect light through a central hole, increasing the magnification and sharpness of objects in the sky.

Workers remove and wash the main mirror of the Advanced Electro-Optical System at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing site, Maui, Hawaii, in preparation for its mirror coating. AMOS is part of the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the AEOS Telescope supports the US Space Force with the Nation’s Space Domain mission to operate freely in space. (Courtesy photo/Boeing)

Keeping the AEOS telescope’s main mirror in good condition is paramount to the site’s SDA mission, said Lt. Col. Phillip Wagenbach, who is both squadron commander and branch chief of the research and development mission of the AFRL Directed Energy Directorate.

The Advanced Electro-Optical System primary mirror cell, which contains the mirror substrate, moves from its telescope location at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing (AMOS) site, Maui, Hawaii, to the Mirror Coating Facility of the unit, where it will undergo a mirror coating. AMOS is part of the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the AEOS Telescope supports the US Space Force with the Nation’s Space Domain mission to operate freely in space. (Courtesy photo/Boeing)

“I am honored to lead these two critical functions that preserve our access and freedom to operate in space,” Wagenbach said. “Periodic coating of the AEOS main mirror ensures the telescope is ready to support the warfighter’s SDA mission. There’s never really a good time to decommission the telescope, but it’s best to plan for recovery as a periodic maintenance effort rather than having to shut down the telescope due to catastrophic mission degradation.

The first mirror coating took place in late 2008, approximately 12 years after the original coating was applied in 1997. The long duration between the original coating and the first coating was mainly due to the construction of the coating facility mirror, completed in 2008.

“Large mirrors like the 3.6-meter AEOS need to be recoated every 4-6 years, but performance requirements are highly dependent on the telescope’s mission,” said Scott Hunt, site technical director. “For our SDA mission, we are challenged to detect dark objects at night and to image satellites during the day. Typically, our SDA objects are brighter than astronomical objects, so we can push coatings longer than astronomers.”

Hunt said scientists and engineers track reflectivity degradation and mirror scattering over time. They weigh that against the risk of overlap, with the telescope out of service, and the mission’s performance for daytime imaging and dark object detection.


“The bare aluminum coating of the AEOS primary mirror degrades over time,” Hunt said. “When the coating is first applied, it is about 1,000 angstroms thick, or about 1/7 the width of a human hair. Imperfections in the original coating increase scatter and decrease reflectivity and may accelerate degradation.These imperfections include smudges, pinholes, and spatter created by dust and contaminants on the mirror substrate or drips of aluminum at the time of coating.

Removing the primary mirror cell from the telescope and moving it to the mirror capping facility is a delicate and time-consuming process that ends in a quick mirror capping.

“Once the mirror cell is transferred from the telescope on the fourth floor of the AEOS building to the mirror coating facility on the first floor, it takes approximately two weeks to remove the mirror substrate from the cell, remove the old coating and prepare the coating chamber,” Hunt said. “Once the mirror is in the chamber, the reflective coating is applied by vacuum deposition with aluminum coated tungsten filaments over a period of 15 to 20 minutes. When the aluminum on the filaments begins to vaporize, the actual coating process takes less than a minute.

The Boeing team poses with the Advanced Electro-Optical System, or AEOS, primary mirror following an overlay at the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing (AMOS) site, Maui, Hawaii. This was the second coating of the mirror since AEOS was originally installed in 1997. AMOS is part of the Air Force Research Laboratory and the 3.6 meter AEOS Telescope supports the space domain reconnaissance mission of the US Space Force. (Courtesy photo/Boeing)

Boeing personnel on site carried out the recovery with support from government management, the facilities contractor and outside experts. During the process, the team encountered a few challenges and even a surprise.

“Probably the biggest challenge was keeping the mirror coating facility clean and ensuring little or no contamination on the substrate before sealing in the vacuum chamber,” Hunt said. “The stripping and cleaning of the substrate was a critical process, especially the final wipe to remove any residue of chemicals used during the stripping and cleaning process.”


Hunt said that through the use of a hepa filter and a clean room plastic shroud around the vacuum chamber, they were able to maintain a much lower particle count in the chamber bell.

“We also fabricated a ‘drumhead’ cover that was placed over the mirror substrate immediately after the cleaning process,” Hunt said. “The drumhead lid proved to be an effective innovation in mitigating particle buildup on the substrate while we were making final preparations in the chamber.”

During the process, insects startled the team several times.

“An excited butterfly floating on our clean substrate inside the chamber would be catastrophic for the coating process,” Hunt explained. “We were able to extract with the cleanroom vacuum without experiencing any adverse effects on the new coating.”

To validate the coating process, the Maui team sent the results to private industry coating experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico. and Tucson, Arizona.

“The report we got was that the coating we got on this overlay was that ‘the results were excellent and among the best they’ve ever seen on a large mirror of this type,'” Wagenbach said.

What is Polkadot? How it works? – Advisor Forbes INDIA Tue, 27 Sep 2022 04:30:00 +0000

Polkadot is a blockchain designed to support other blockchains. Think of this crypto platform as a network made up of other blockchain systems.

If you think of each blockchain as a single dot, then the Polkadot blockchain is like a pattern made up of those dots. Let’s take a closer look to see how it all works.

What is Polkadot?

Polkadot is envisioned as an upgraded version of Ethereum. Launched in May 2020, Polkadot is the brainchild of Ethereum (ETH) co-founder Gavin Wood. The platform is now managed by the Web3 Foundation (W3F) and developed by Parity Technologies, both co-founded by Wood.

Polkadot operates at a deeper level than a blockchain like Ethereum – think of it as a foundation that other crypto projects can build on. It calls itself a layer 0 blockchain, while Ethereum and similar blockchains like Solana (SOL) and Cardano (ADA) are called layer 1 blockchains.

When Wood first wrote the Polkadot whitepaper, he argued that crypto needed a new system that allowed interactions between different blockchain networks. Noticing issues with Ethereum’s ability to grow and scale, Wood attempted to address this issue with a new blockchain based on a proof-of-stake validation system.

Proof-of-stake validation was offered unlike earlier blockchains, such as Bitcoin (BTC) or Litecoin (LTC). In proof of work, blockchain miners solve cryptographic puzzles to add the next block to the chain for mining rewards. With Proof of Stake, validators use staked tokens as collateral to determine the next block in the chain.

The main scaling issue Wood wanted to solve with Polkadot was the amount of computing power that Ethereum required for its original proof-of-work validation system.

How does Polkadot work?

David Lawant, research director at Bitwise Asset Management, calls Polkadot a “heterogeneous multi-chain system”. This is just a fancy way of saying that there are different blockchains running on the Polkadot system.

As stated above, a Layer 0 blockchain functions as a foundational layer below Layer 1 blockchains. Polkadot provides an integrated framework on which programmers can build their own blockchains with cross-chain interoperability.

Layer 1 blockchains, like the Ethereum Wood project built with co-founder Vitaly Dmitriyevich “Vitalik” Buterin and others, allow programmers to create decentralized applications (DApps), smart contracts, non-fungible tokens (NFTs) ) and more.

But it’s difficult for programmers to build a Layer 1 blockchain. They have to build the base layer before they can even get hundreds of people to run their Layer 1 program on one computer, says Bill Birmingham, chief investment officer at Osprey Funds.

Experts say Polkadot has already built the base layer. So all the Layer 1 programmer has to do is focus on optimizing their own project.

Thibault Perréard, head of finance at cross-chain staking hub Bifrost, says most of these Layer 1 systems are siled. They don’t have much interaction with each other. Polkadot intends to allow any public or private blockchain to communicate with each other – it’s supposed to be “the internet of blockchains”.

Polkadot Native Token: DOT

The key to bringing all of these factors together—proof-of-stake validation, cross-chain interactions, and base-layer programming—is DOT, Polkadot’s native token.

DOT is the token staked or pledged by validators to approve the next block on the Polkadot blockchain. In this way, DOT functions as Polkadot’s proof-of-stake mechanism.

Each separate blockchain built on Polkadot is referred to as a parallel chain or parachain within the system.

When moving data through these parachains, security is paramount. Polkadot provides this security with a single underlying chain called relay chain.

This relay channel is Polkadot’s main channel, and according to Lawant, it’s what sets Polkadot apart from its closest competitor, Cosmos (ATOM).

Perréard even specifies that “the chain of relays ensures security”. He says parachains can “take advantage of Polkadot’s architecture and foundation.” In other words, they don’t have to worry about security.

DOT is the token used to validate blocks on Polkadot’s relay chain. But staking isn’t the only use of DOT in the Polkadot system. The token is also used for governance and liaison. All DOT holders have the right to vote on network governance, such as network upgrades and fees.

DOT as Guarantee

The other factor that Polkadot operators need to consider is which projects get a parachain in the Polkadot system. These parachains are offered by separate projects using DOT as collateral.

According to Birmingham, a project can “go out and buy DOT to commit to” Polkadot for the parachain auction. Then, if the project has enough DOT, “They’ll win the spot.”

Once a project is approved for a parachain, the auctioned DOT is locked in for two years. Users will receive lockout rewards in exchange for the projects.

Polkadot’s first parachain auction concluded in December 2021.

Polkadot versus Ethereum

Ethereum, the number 2 blockchain in the world, and Polkadot have a few things in common. However, the two blockchains have many more things that differ.

Here are some similarities and differences between Polkadot and Ethereum:

Investing in Polkadot

Polkadot is an easily accessible crypto asset. For developers bidding on a Polkadot parachain or investors interested in acquiring tokens for speculative purposes, DOT can be purchased on most major crypto exchanges around the world.

Investors can also gain exposure to Polkadot through the Osprey Polkadot Trust (ODOT), which is publicly traded on the OTCQX over-the-counter market.

Once DOT tokens are purchased, they can be kept in a crypto wallet. Crypto wallets are available online (hot wallet) or offline (cold wallet). Online wallets carry greater security risks. You will also need to verify that the crypto wallet supports Polkadot tokens.

Investors should remember that Polkadot, like all cryptocurrencies, is an extremely speculative and risky investment.

If you are considering owning DOT tokens, you may want to consult a financial advisor first. You should never invest more than you can afford to lose, given the volatile nature of cryptocurrencies.

Simplify learning to code with this $25 Scratch Programming course package Sun, 25 Sep 2022 09:00:00 +0000
Prices and availability of offers may change after posting.

TL; DR: Starting September 25, you can get the Coding with Scratch 2023 Coding Pack(opens in a new tab) for just $25 instead of $1,000 — that’s a 97% discount.

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New supercomputer for climate research inaugurated in Hamburg Sat, 24 Sep 2022 16:34:42 +0000

A new supercomputer called Levante has been inaugurated at the German Climate Computing Center. It is said to allow incredibly detailed climate simulations and enables 14 quadrillion mathematical operations per second (14 petaflops).

Levante: a supercomputer goes into service in Hamburg

On September 22, 2022, the new Levante supercomputer began operations at the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ). It is provided by Atos and is used for climate research. Due to its enormous computing power, it should enable detailed climate simulations that have not been feasible until now.

Levante is made up of 2,832 tightly networked computers, each with two processors, which together have a performance of 14 petaflops and can perform 14 quadrillion mathematical operations per second. An impressive figure, but not quite up to the Mare Nostrum 5 with 314 PFLOPS.

Each AMD EPYC processor has 64 processor cores, giving the supercomputer a total of over 362,000 processing cores. The main memory comprises more than 800 terabytes, which are divided into memory sizes between 256 GB and 1024 GB. In addition to the CPU partition with conventional computers, Levante has a partition with 60 GPU nodes which provide power additional peak computing power of 2.8 petaflops.

Data transfer between computers is extremely fast thanks to NVIDIA Mellanox HDR 200G. Up to 200 Gbit/s are possible. The data is stored on a storage system with a total capacity of 132 petabytes, which is provided by DDN.

In November 2017, an agreement between the Helmholtz Association, the Max Planck Society and the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg approved financial resources for Levante. A total amount of 45 million euros has been agreed.

High resolution climate models

“The new Levante supercomputer at DKRZ will enable even more complete, higher resolution and therefore better climate projections in the future,” says Federal Research Minister Bettina Stark-Watzinger of the FDP.

They must provide even more complete and detailed information on the effects of climate change than was possible before. The Levante supercomputer also opens up new possibilities in terms of energy efficiency.

According to Professor Dr. Thomas Ludwig, Managing Director of DKRZ, the waste heat will be used to heat the laboratories in the nearby university building. In doing so, the supercomputer allows particularly fine climate simulations (with a mesh width of only 1 km).

“Although only for a few hours, it has never been possible for anyone else before. It has only been possible because we now have Levante”, adds Professor Jochem Marotzke, director of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology.